Browsed by
Tag: temperature

Mars 2 & 3

Mars 2 & 3

May 28, 1971

Launched on May 28, 1971 the two spacecraft arrived at Mars on December 2, 1971. Both craft had Mars landers but only Mars 3 survived the, at the time, ongoing dust storms – making it the first successful landing on Mars. After touching down the lander survived for 20 seconds before failing. The lander also possibly deployed the first ever rover onto the Mars surface.

After several orbits around Mars, Mars 2 & 3 returned 60 images, recorded temperature ranges from -110 to 13 degrees celsius. They also produced surface relief maps and studied the planets gravity and magnetic field.

Mars temperature measured

Mars temperature measured

1924

Using the Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, astronomers Seth Barnes Nicholson and Edison Pettit measured the thermal energy radiated by the surface of Mars. They concluded that Mars’ temperature ranges from −68 °C (−90 °F) at the pole up to 7 °C (45 °F) at the equator.

The same year William Coblentz and astronomer Carl Otto Lampland monitored Mars radiated energy and concluded that the nighttime temperature on Mars was as low as −85 °C (−121 °F).